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ʱ:2010-12-8

()ӦѧһԾʱ, ( )еӦ㷺, еθǺ϶ʹ ()ǺϺͷϡθ ( )Ϊṩ˷, , ʱ, ֯˳ѪȾ, ӿ֯ٹܵĻָ, ӶסԺʱ䡣 ( )Ӧû԰ҽͨµƾַʵʩ˳, һ̶θЧ, ҲΪѶչ΢ṩ˱Ҫ, ǵҽӦϤյļ
һ ()ķչʷ
19ͺ, ͳֹرոпںؽԵĸе1908, ҽʦ Hum erHultl˵һִķ, ÷θг1924, һλҽ V on Petzθе1934¹ Fr i edrichҽƲʹ˿ɲװǺ 1951, ƳһѪǺ, ǺθǺ, ЩӦٴȡЧ1958ѧ Ravitchǰʵеоιۺ, 1967꿪ʼ, ĿظʹõǺǴרлġ1967, ƹ˾ Auto Sut ureĴʼ Locn H irschĹʦǽװ춤ʱ, һֿԷӦٴǺǾ˫ŷ춤ķ, ͨڷʵʡ θ򳦵ⷭ, ˵ǻеϼչʷ̱ʽIJƷ1968, ƹ˾Ƴһ²ƷGI AGI A˫˫ŷ춤ƬڷϵͬʱԽ֯и, ͨθ֯, θ ڷǺϡ1978, ƹ˾״˹Ͷ˶Ǻ, EEA, ˫Żη춤Ƭ, ƬǺʱжϷ춤ڲ֯, ʹ֮γɶ˶ǺϿ, ڲֱͬǻĻ״Ǻϡ1979һһʹõǺ, ʹǺĴ͹㷺Ӧһ̨ס1980갮ϧ˾Ǻ I LS˺, ڲͬ֯ķ½, ΪҽṩõҹԶʹ 1976, ȺƳɹθǺϡ ᳦ֱǺɹӦٴ, Щеʹ÷άȽϸ, ӰƹʹáһʱķչڹеڹӦñȽձ, ýϵ, ҹʵʹ, ĿǰγɲҵǺķƷչʷϾҪ, ӦʹѺ͸׺ͼ, ʹԭɵΪ, Ҵ֢ʡֱ, Ǻ˱Ӧ֤, ʹλֱԱš
()θеӦ
θ, ( )ڽθг, ʳθǺ; ȫθг, ʳܿճǺ; Զθг, θʮָǺ; Զθг, θճǺ
1 . θг, ʳθǺ: 뼰гθʳ¶, Զθж÷رաθԤǺϴһС, ״Ǻĸ˾ײθǻپθж, ʳܶ϶, սʳܶ϶˵ĺɰ, Ǻĸ£, Ǻ, θж÷պϡ
2 . ȫθг, ʳܿճǺ: θʳ¶гϺ, ʮָж÷պ, ʳܶ϶˿ʹúɰúɰߡ˿ճ, ʹ 15~ 20 cmճ, ӳԶ˿ճϵĤ, ھճ϶ 4~ 5 c mϵĤԲ೦ڴһС, ״Ǻĸ˾˴ײ볦ǻɿճ϶, ٽʳܶ϶ڡսʳܺɰ, Ǻĸ˽ճǻ£, ڼ, Ǻϡճж÷رա
3 . θг, θʮָǺ: θʮָ, жʮָ, жúɰúɰ, Ԥгλθ塣θжС÷ر, ݲϡθ岿ھθж 4~ 5 cmһС, ״Ǻĸ˾˿ײθǻθ϶, ʮָжˡսɰ, ˳ĸǺθǻ£ڼ, Ǻϡθж÷رա
4 . θг, θճǺ: θʮָ, жʮָ, ж÷رաθ Ϲرθж˼ײĸ˲ͬθʮָǺõ絶θǰһ, ȷθڵǺϲλ, ʹθ϶˶ 3~ 4 c m, θ 3~ 4 c m״Ǻθǰڴڲθǻ, ˿ճ, ԤǺϲλijϵĤԲ೦гԼ 1 cmֱij֯, ΧƱԵúɰߡ״Ǻ˿ճ, սɰ, ˳ĸǺ, £, Ǻϡֱижϡ պθ塣
()ڽ᳦еӦ
1 . Ұ᳦г, ؽ᳦˲Ǻ: ä ᳦ͽ᳦Ұ᳦г, ĩ˻سɰúɰ, 붤ͷ᳦, Ӻ᳦϶˲״Ǻ, ϶Լ 4~ 5 cmϴһС, Ǻ, Ǻ, ɻ ᳦Ǻϡ᳦϶ֱͷպϡ
2 . ᳦г, ᳦˶Ǻ: ᳦г, ᳦ͽ᳦϶˿һ೦һС, ˶Ǻ, Զ˳ǻ˵ֶ, ֱɰ߹̶, ӽ᳦˲ԶڵĵֶǺ. 俿, Ǻ, ˳епڿֱηպϡ
3 . ״᳦г, ᳦ֱ˶Ǻ: ״᳦г˫еǺϽΪʡֱηպֱ϶, پѱպϵֱä˴뽵᳦Ǻϡͨպϵֱäù״ǺǺ, Ϊ㡢 ȫ, ᳦ֱھϴʱ, ҲܵõǺϡֱȽֱηжֱ, طжϳܡڽ᳦϶кɰ, ԲǺͷ, ս ɰߡغӸ״Ǻ,תñ, ʹֱä˶ϲǰ, ԲǺĸ˼˴ӷ϶᳦̳ԤúõĶͷ봩, תβñʹǺ붤ͷӽ, ᳦ֱѹ, Ǻϡ
ġ ()ֱеӦ
ֱҪʹԲǺ, ֱͷֱиΪеʹá ( )ʹֱΪ㡢ȫ, ˵λǻںɰϲ, ǻȾ, һȫԡǺʹòʵֱĻеͱ׼, ҽѵ,󽵵IJȶԡеλֱ, ҽǺϿ©խȲ֢һֱ, ۲λõĸߵ, ֻҪ, ʹǺֱǺ·ԷΪ·;·; ǺʹԷΪǺ˫Ǻ Ǻ᳦ֱ (ع )Ǻϡ
1 . ˶Ǻ: ֱʹõǺԲǺ, õĽ·Ǿ·ɰкҪһ, ӦѡøǿȻߡǻɺɰĻ߿ѳűжֱ߷ɰúɰǯʱҪɰǷ, 粻ӹ̷Ϲ̶Ǻʱ, ǺǰͿҺʯͻ󻬼, Ƚͷ᳦, սɰ, ڶͷ, ǺŲ벢ƽ, תݸʹĸ˴,սɰ߲ĸ, ڵλȴٴĸ˸㡣ԶֱֱͷϷ, ĸӦϴͷ, ӶܲĸڶͷԽӡݸ, սǺȫΧ, 򿪱, £ֱɻעսǺĹ, Ҫֹ˳Ťת, ҪֹΧ֯ǶǺ, رŮԻߵĺڡɺ, ɵݸ, ʹǺǺϿڷֿ, ҡǺ˳漴֯ȦǷ,ȱǺϿڷ޲
2 . ˲Ǻ: ǺIJλԷΪǺ;ŽǺ˲ǺϿγһ᳦  J!ȡ  J!ʽǺϵٴ: ˽᳦, ˸ŵĿ; ǺϿ©ķʡ
( 1)Ǻ: ᳦϶˽Ǻ, Ǻӽ᳦ж˽, ĸ˼, Ӿ᳦жԼ 5 c m᳦ڴǺϳϷ, Ǻͷ, Ǻϡʹͷ, ˳Ǻ, ֱͷպǺĽ᳦ˡΪ֤ǺϿ, Ҫʱ᳦ƢǺɺ, Ϲرս᳦ж, γ  J!ȡ ( 2)ŽǺ: ֱɺ, ֱͷպֱԶ, гسϡԽ᳦϶˷붤ͷ, ϶5 c m, պϽ᳦˶ˡǺԸŽ, ֱ(ع )᳦Ķ˲Ǻϡͬγ  J!ȡ ( 3)᳦Ĺ: ֱõ JиɡոʽҪгиɡոʽҪг, պϽ˽᳦϶, Զ˽᳦5~ 6 cm, ֱи, سڳ᷽и, ɡһиĽؿڲλ붤ͷ, ֱ (ֹ )ǺϡעиӦڶϵĤԵ, ҪϵĤǶиϲλ
塢 ()ʹùӦע
θ ()ʹصIJ֢ǺϿ© ǺϿڳѪ ǺϿխϲ֢ӦǺ, ֹǺҲͬԳ֢( )ʹô󽵵˲֢ķʡθӦ ( ), ӦǺע⡣
1 . ǺϿ©: ǺϿ©Ӧ( )һز֢, һ, ءǺ, ر˫ǺӦ䷢½ǺϿ©ԭж˳Ѫ˲, ǺϿ, Ǻʹò, Ǻʱ˳Χ֯, Ǻ϶Χ֯, ɰж˹ⷭ, Ǻѡùɳڲ˺, ǺǺ϶ȱʧ, ǺϺǣȶءΪӦ ( )ǺϿ©Ҫע: ӦرעⱣԶ˳Ѫ; ˽᳦Ӧ״ԵѪ, бԵѪܵIJ; ɰ˳벻Ӧ 2 . 0 c m; ǺǰӦϸǺ϶Ƿ; ɰǷ; Ǻ϶ǷΧ֯, 볤ȲǺϲλ֬Χ֯ǺʱΧ֯Ǻ϶, ˳ڲȫԺ, ǺǰӦϸǺϿڶˡɰж˹ⷭ֯ǶǺȦڡǺʱӦֿDZǺгܵijԷǺϺǺϿ; ѡʵͺŵǺ,ǺʱӦǺϳֱܵѡӦǺǺѡùʱ, ͷǿ볦ǻ, ɳĤ˺ѡֱηֶϺ, ӦݳڵĺȾѡ
2 . ǺϿխ: ǺǺխڴͳֹǺϡȷʹǺǰ, ǺƵĶо༰ڷij̶ȾֹϸȷǺϿխǽ֢״, ڼʱ֡ǺϿխԭ: Ǻͺѡ񲻵; ǺϿ; ǺϿڸȾǺϿ©ȡѡǺʱӦעС볦ǻֱ, ǺѡùСǺϿֱС, ͷ̫ǿв볦ǻ𳦱, Ϻɲխ,һֱǺѡֱ 31~ 33mmǺǺϿʱ¾ֲѪ˲,ǺϿխǺϿڸȾǺϿ©ҲǺϿխ, Ӧܱ⡣
3 . ǺϿڳѪ: ǺǺ϶Ϊ˫㽻, ӦǺǺϿڳѪѾȽټ, ٴȻǺʱ֬ϵĤѪܿǺϿɡĿǰ۹ǽڵǺǿɿ, ΪǺǺϿڳѪķdzټǺǰӦǺij, ܵǺϿڳѪ֬; ȷʹúͻǺ; ȷϺɰȫ; ǺϺӦϸиȦǷ֮, еǺֻһֶָ, ʹǺȻӦѭĻԭ, п׼ȷ ֹѪơοҽӦǺĽṹԭܷdzϤ, еʿӦϤǺ ܺ͸ͺǺӦ֤ǺеĿٷչ, Ϊҽṩ, ҲؽٽҹθƼĿٷչ

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